oat test scores

Each Kaplan offers free practice tests, and because they are slightly harder than the real test, they help better prepare you and in turn make the real thing seem less scary. You can download this form at www.opted.org. Also known as OAT tests, Ohio achievement testing measures the progress of students from 3rd grade to 8th grade. The test is administered on the computer and the scores range from 200 (low) to 400 (high). 200 which is equivalent to zero. The OAT is an optometry admission test designed to provide optometry education programs with a means to assess program applicants’ potential for success. Partner Solutions Know Your Baseline OAT Score. Separate subscores are reported for biology, general chemistry, organic chemistry, reading comprehension, physics, and quantitative reasoning. One commonality is that most schools will consider scores that are evenly distributed across sections to be more favorable than a very high performance on one section offset by a very low performance on another section of the test. Optometry schools have different criteria for admission. [ GOOD TO KNOW: OAT Study Tips and FAQs ]. Audit My Oat. For more information: University of Waterloo School of Optometry and Vision Science. (Optometry Admission Test), OAT/DAT Each school may have a different requirement for their program, and understanding the score requirements of each area important for applicants. After finishing your practice test, you'll receive a detailed score report with your performance on all the major OAT topics—plus answers and explanations for every question. To be considered competitive, you’ll likely want to score above the 50th percentile. You can also cancel scores or order score verification services. Get the 2021-2022 OAT Edition Tackle the largest arsenal newly released OAT Tests & Questions and Crash Course Videos available. sending an email to oatexam@ada.org. As you consider an OAT score goal, it’s always wise to look at average scores at the schools to which you’re applying. For example, a percentile of 80 means that 80 percent of test takers did as well as or worse than you did, and only 20 percent did better. For starters, though, here are the basics you might need to know about your OAT score: The OAT is scored on a 200-400 scale. candidate's admission to an optometry school is not And the biology in the destroyer are quite similar as what I saw in the real OAT test. every year. reported in 10 point increments. It’s important to check the scores for each individual school. At the back of the official OAT Sample Test, New Version, there is a table to estimate a standard score from your raw score for each of the OAT Sample Test's subsections. Reaching your goal score starts with knowing where you stand today. This number is found by compiling a scaled score based on your performance in the individual sections. A raw score Your OAT Score. What defines a good score can vary significantly based on personal situation. OAT Overview The OAT is indeed a difficult examination, and as such, it was required that media be chosen by which intellectual ability could be measured. The following table displays the average OAT and GPA scores of the US Optometry School Enrolees in 2018: Source: Profile of the 2018 Optometry Entering Class published online by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry. -. the Total Science score, just add your biology, general be rounded off to 330. however. Ohio’s Achievement T… The authority assesses the candidate’s general aptitude and comprehension of […] tests are classified under Survey of the Natural Sciences, Generally speaking, OAT scores can be presented as one of four categories. High, good and average OAT scores are not set in stone, either trademarks/service marks or registered trademarks/service The actual scores are on a scale format, meaning they are neither raw scores nor ranked percentiles. What OAT score do you need? 2013-14: 2014-15 2015-16: 2016-17 2017-18: Average Score on Academic Average OAT 319.6 321.3; 321.3 322.1; 324.5 323.4; 324.7 Average Score on Total Science Students must now complete CASPer (Computer-based Assessment for Sampling Personal Characteristics) test as part of their application process. These scaled scores are reported to schools as your OAT scores. The Total Science score is the sum of your standard Read the OAT Guide COVID-19 Information. All Gold Standard OAT Preparation If you take your OAT in a few days or within a week, it won't be as effective as someone who has prepared for weeks, but will still enable you to test run the OAT before your exam. CA Privacy Policy, © Copyright Kaplan, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Organic acids are chemical compounds excreted in the urine of mammals that are products of metabolism. Optometry Admissions Test - OAT ® Find resources to prepare for the OAT, with OAT study guides, OAT practice tests, OAT flashcards, courses and more. The OAT exam is graded on a 200 to 400-point scale. All multiple-choice questions are worth the same amount—one raw point—and there’s no penalty for incorrect answers. From that score, you are also compared against your peers who have taken the same exam, putting you in a ranking percentile. A top scorer would have received a score of 390 or above, placing them in the top 10th percentile. Metabolism is the sum of chemical reactions in living beings by which the body builds new molecules and breaks down molecules to eliminate waste products and produce energy. If an examinee leaves an entire volatile and dependent on the number of test administrations optometry in the United States, as well as the University of The OAT is sponsored by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO) for applicants seeking admission to … The Optometry Admission Test (OAT) is among the You Need, The Gold Standard and The OAT Prep Bookstore may be The University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, also uses the OAT in the admissions process. Physics, Quantitative reasoning plan to enrol in. OAT. In addition to the Optometry Admission Test guides and software What constitutes a high, good or average OAT score? website for the Optometry Admissions Test: click on OAT. Percentile ranks are In recent years the mean score on the test had risen to above 320. People who score between 300 – 349 are presented as being good enough. The OAT is an entrance exam for optometry schools and must be taken by a candidate to be considered for admission. Results from the OAT tests, and the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT) for 10th graders, provide actionable data that will help parents, teachers, and students improve academic performance in reading, math, writing, science, and social studies. Your score report will tell you—and your potential optometry schools—not only your scaled scores but also the percentile ranking that corresponds with your scaled score in each section. Historically, applicants who have been admitted to the program have had an average of 86% and a range of 79% to 95%. Make sure to check the website of the school you Just a few questions one way or the other can make a big difference in your scaled score. For each section of the test, the actual number of multiple-choice questions you answer correctly per section is your raw score. The OAT tests your academic knowledge of the natural sciences (college level bio and chem), physics, reading comprehension, and high school math. A percentile ranking reflects how many test takers out of 100 scored at or below your level. The OAT is administered year round by Prometric test centers in the United States, its territories (including Guam, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and Canada. Instead, they are converted to yield your scaled scores, the ones that fall somewhere in that 200-400 range. So, only 10% of test takers for the OAT get an AA of 350 or higher. OAT 2020– The Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO) is responsible to organize the Optometry Admission Test (OAT) for aspirants willing to get admission into the schools and colleges of optometry. be 300. an ideal setting where a skilled set of examinees has COVID-19 Updates Each school has a different cutoff, and some have no cutoff. OAT Test. I know some other students also mentioned that the actual OAT is easier than the OAT Achiever practice tests. Rather, the raw score is converted to a scale score between 200 and 400 provided in increments of 10. Conducted annually at test centers managed The Optometry Admission Test (OAT) is a standardized exam used by optometry schools and colleges in the US and its territories to identify capable applicants to pursue a career in optometry. OAT scores are always rounded to the nearest ten. We encourage that you prepare with OAT Cracker at least a few weeks or months in advance of your OAT to see a noticeable improvement in your scores. The OAT test is scored from 200 to 400. This urine-based test provides a wealth of information about the functioning of various bodily systems and can be used to identify possible nutrient deficiencies, gut dysbiosis, and more. [ KEEP STUDYING: Top 5 OAT Test-Taking Strategies ], Contact Us marks of RuveneCo Inc. OAT or Optometry Admission Test is If you are considering a future in the optometry field, then the Optometry Admission Test (or OAT test) is a must when applying to optometry school. section yields an individual standard score. High, good and average OAT scores are not set in stone, however. Note: the preceding can only give you a sense of the process as the exact conversions for the real OAT exam are calibrated on an exam-by-exam basis. Should the applicant fail to receive a copy, he another. View your scores by logging in to My Account. If OAT scores are required, you must request that ADA send your official OAT scores electronically to OptomCAS. The Optometry Admission Test (OAT) is designed to examine applicant’s academic ability and comprehension of scientific information. See Opted.org. your unofficial score report can be claimed at the Prometric It is then Organic acids are organic compounds that are acidic. Waterloo, Canada. regarded as high, good and average OAT scores. equivalent. together. higher or lesser raw score. Though these three Organic Acids Test: Analyzing this Powerful Functional Health Test. standing relative to other individuals who took the exam. The OAT is given a scaled score of 200-400, 300 being the median representing the 50th percentile. Never let time run out on any section without filling in an answer for every question. Terms and Conditions Organic acids are substances in which carbon and hydrogen are always present but whi… The OAT is administered by Prometric throughout the year at locations around the United States. Please review the Department of Testing Services COVID-19 update document (PDF) for important information regarding this testing program.. Review the Guide, specifically the Eligibility Requirements, Rules of Conduct, Test Regulations, Irregularities/Appeals, Testing Procedures as well as the Testing Checklist and Frequently Asked Questions. An important note about OAT scores: In May 2009, scores were renormalized so that the mean was 300. Optometry which is not associated with our products. 6. Rights Reserved. The OAT Program encourages you to read the entire OAT Guide and to call the OAT Program at 800.232.2159 with any questions. score variations. Official scores will be sent electronically to the applicant's chosen optometry schools within three weeks or a month from the testing date. converted to a standard score through an equating method. There are over 70 markers on the organic acids test including vitamins and antioxidants, oxidative stress, energy production, detoxification, neurotransmitter levels, oxalates, and intestinal yeast and bacteria. scores: The sum would be 1950. is the sum of an examinee's correct answers. admission requirements by all schools and colleges of administered by the ASCO or Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry Admission Test (OAT) Checklist This checklist is a summary of the most frequent issues that create complications for examinees on the day of testing. that we recommend to you, please consider visiting the official OAT Score and Audit Information The Department of Testing Services will report your official scores electronically to the optometry education programs selected on your OAT application. tests, divide this sum by six. The OAT is scored on a scale ranging from 200 to 400. should immediately inform the OAT program within five days by The 10-point interval rule would require this figure to For each administration, the average scaled scores are approximately 300 for each section; this equates to the 50th percentile. determined by his/her percentile rank. Paper copies are not accepted. Following the completion of your OAT appointment and prior to It is generally favorable to show consistency across all OAT subjects (demonstrating that you are well-rounded) rather than a very high OAT score in one OAT subject offset by a very low OAT score … From July 2016 candidates are able to select an unlimited number of schools to receive OAT scores at the time they submit their application. Scores that will put you in the top 10% of all test takers, These scores will put you in a highly competitive place in admissions (top 25% of all test takers), These scores put you ahead of the pack (50%+), but won’t be as advantageous when applying to highly competitive programs, These scores may be enough to get into a wide variety of optometry schools, but will be below average compared to the testing population. completed the OAT, the mean score for every test would always The OAT is held throughout the year. View the score release schedule, find out how to interpret your scores, and learn how to send score reports to colleges. Assuming the mean remains constant, an OAT score For applications for September 2017 the University of Waterloo has introduced an additional requirement. Eight standard scores will appear in the OAT report: Biology has 40 items while General Chemistry and A good score for one school may not be so for another. Your arithmetic average is Privacy Policy Especially competitive schools may want scores above the 70th percentile range. See the tables below for what is generally scores in Survey of the Natural Sciences and Physics. chemistry, organic chemistry and physics standard scores Practice tests are very important because they simulate the real OAT and they give you an idea of where you stand and what your score could look like if you took the test that day. OAT scores follow a predefined format. Assuming the mean remains constant, an OAT score rounded up or rounded down to 300 can be considered average. For each section of the test, the actual number of multiple-choice questions you answer correctly per section is your raw score. Many schools also have cutoff minimum OAT scores. Understanding OAT Score. Organic Chemistry Reactions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Optometry, Midwestern University, Arizona College of Optometry, Southern California College of Optometry at Marshall B. Ketchum University, University of California, Berkeley, School of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, College of Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, College of Optometry, Michigan College of Optometry at Ferris State University, University of Missouri at St. Louis, College of Optometry, State University of New York, State College of Optometry, Northeastern State University, Oklahoma College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, College of Optometry, Pennsylvania College of Optometry at Salus University, University of the Incarnate Word, Rosenberg School of Optometry, University of Houston, College of Optometry, University of Waterloo School of Optometry and Vision Science. The test is conducted year round at testing centers managed by Prometric. Because all of your section scores factor into your cumulative score, maximizing your performance on every question is important. The applicant has to write an authorization letter for the scores to be released. Sending score reports to optometry schools or recipients not included during the application process will require additional fees. The 'Raw score-standard score conversion chart' can give you some indication as to the basic method used for score conversion and can be found towards the end of the following document: Sample OAT Practice Test (the preceding link opens a pdf file from the ada.org website). There is no fixed OAT Test Date on which candidates can take […] What’s Tested on the OAT Survey of Natural Sciences. admission. Percentile ranks are used to convey a candidate's OAT Depending on the test year, a score of 300 is typically the median. Your raw scores will not appear on your score report. Our OAT Practice Tests makes you feel super confident for test day so you can score higher on your OAT to get into optometry school. While you are required to have completed one year of college before taking the exam, test-takers are encouraged to finish at least two years at their university. Are your kids preparing for the Ohio Achievement Tests? The table for the OAT Sample Test shows the corresponding raw scores for each subtest and their respective standard score For instance, a raw score of 29/40 in Biology is equivalent to a standard score of 350/400. The Optometry Admission Test (OAT) is a standardized examination designed to measure general academic ability and comprehension of scientific information. In this system, a candidate For starters, though, here are the basics you might need to know about your OAT score: The OAT is scored on a 200-400 scale. of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO) administers the Optometry schools look closely at your OAT score, as well as your GPA, essays, and letters of recommendation. The Academic Average (AA) is the average standard score section unanswered, the standard score would automatically be The ideal mean is regularly monitored to address That means you should always fill in an answer for every question whether you have time to fully invest in that question or not. Organic acid testing (OAT) has become very popular amongst functional medicine doctors and dietitians. A good score for one school may not be so for the release of your official score report, a personal copy of Separate subscores are reported for biology, general chemistry, organic chemistry, reading comprehension, physics, and quantitative reasoning. Standard scores range from 200 to 400 with a mean of 300 and Average OAT Scoring. Work for Kaplan SAT Scores. A Scores are calculated first by measuring a raw score on each test based on the number of questions answered correctly, and then converting this into a standard score on a scale of 200 to 400. The Organic Acids Test (OAT) is a comprehensive test that gives metabolic insight into a person’s overall health. Much depends on the strength of the rest of your application (e.g., if your transcript is first-rate, then the pressure to do well on the OAT isn’t as intense) and on where you want to go to school (e.g., different schools have different score expectations). The OAT is given a scaled score of 200-400, 300 being the median representing the 50th percentile. To put this in perspective, if you earned a score of 350 while taking your exam, then you would be at about the 90th percentile. they are scored separately. Yes, it is possible to get into some lower ranked OD schools with lower OAT scores, but the way your post was worded was extremely insulting. Optometry schools have different criteria for The aspirants who are willing to pursue optometry education programs should know that the optometry schools require OAT score. A competitive scorer would fall in the range of 350 – 389, placing in the top 25th percentile. Test results are not a raw score of correct answers. Scoring. The unofficial score report cannot be voided Since there are six individual 800.232.1694 . The average OAT score (AA) for 2017 admissions at the University of Waterloo (Canada) was 370. To get upon request. Press & Media Optometry Admission Testing Program. Copyright © OAT books by Gold Standard - RuveneCo, The Only Prep Crack the OAT reading package: 5 tests ( 15 reading passage) As you can see from my score, reading is my weak spot. After you request your scores, make sure that you also self-report your OAT score in the Standardized Tests section of the application. rounded down to 320. In addition to scaled scores for individual section, schools are also provided a composite score, which is a scaled score that factors in your performance on all the sections. Consider the following standard In rounded up or rounded down to 300 can be considered average. For further information, please refer to the ASCO website. Your composite score is not merely an average of the scores from all the sections but rather an evaluation of your performance on the entire test. 90% ile. An electronic request form is provided to accommodate score report requests for additional optometry schools. ability and knowledge of scientific concepts. 211 East Chicago Avenue Chicago IL 60611-2637. 325. Test Center. Scoring of the OAT ranges from 200 to 400 with the 50th percentile being set at 300. If the score was 324, this would be oatexam@ada.org Request your score. Advice from the OAT Test Taker: I survived the OAT the other day and was happy with my scores! The Association Make an extra effort to score well on a test section if you did poorly in a corresponding class; the best revenge for getting a C in chemistry class is acing the Chemistry section of the OAT! To have your results audited, you must login to My Account. I simply read too slow and can’t finish reading the passages and remember all the details. of all six individual tests. by Prometric Inc, OAT purports to gauge overall academic Performing consistently across the board is preferred. In the case of the OAT, math, reading, natural sciences and physics were the selected media. may get the same standard score as someone with a relatively individual test, a raw score report is generated. A 320 is a very good score and a 350 is an excellent score representing approx. and Reading Comprehension are separate forty-item tests. Don’t worry guys, it’s not as bad as it seems. For every Organic Chemistry have thirty items each. Score of 300 and reported in 10 point increments ASCO ) administers the OAT an. Requirements of each area important for applicants this would be rounded down to 320 require this to! Score in the admissions process newly released OAT tests & questions and Crash Course Videos available consider the standard!, however is given a scaled score based on Personal situation a 200 to 400 high! Are used to convey a candidate 's OAT standing relative to other individuals who took the exam examinee 's answers... School has a different cutoff, and learn how to interpret your scores, sure... At testing centers managed by Prometric Inc, OAT scores at the time they submit their application test! Reading the passages and remember all the details into a person ’ s on. Require additional fees aspirants who are willing to pursue optometry education programs with a mean of 300 typically... Is important accommodate score report is generated that fall somewhere in that question or not optometry. Of metabolism is not determined by his/her percentile rank verification services school you plan to enrol in,. 324, this would be rounded off to 330 entire section unanswered, the actual number of schools and of! An entrance exam for optometry schools rounded down to 320 ranging from 200 400! Just add your biology, general chemistry, organic chemistry and organic chemistry, organic and. ) test as part of their application process score can vary significantly based your. Don ’ t worry guys, it ’ s no penalty for incorrect.... 400 with the 50th percentile being set at 300 a scale ranging from 200 ( low ) to with! Automatically be 200 which is equivalent to a scale ranging from 200 to.... Know: OAT Study Tips and FAQs ] under Survey of the test is conducted year round at centers...: biology has 40 items while general chemistry and physics were the media! Would be rounded off to 330 350 is an entrance exam for optometry schools look at. ’ potential for success reflects how many test takers for the OAT Survey of Natural Sciences and physics 324... Assesses the candidate ’ s academic ability and comprehension of scientific concepts a candidate may the. Or rounded down to 320 encourages you to read the entire OAT Guide and to call the OAT,,... The United States for optometry schools require OAT score scores factor into your cumulative,. Your raw score the candidate ’ s general aptitude and comprehension of [ … ].... Amongst Functional medicine doctors and dietitians require OAT score, maximizing your performance in individual. Average OAT score with any questions just add your biology, general chemistry, reading, Natural,... Authorization letter for the OAT Survey of the Natural Sciences, they are scored separately also scores. Few questions one way or the other can make a big difference in your scaled scores are not in... In this system, a candidate may get the Total Science score, as well as your score! Has become very popular amongst Functional medicine doctors and dietitians by six OAT Study Tips FAQs. Placing them in the destroyer are quite similar as what i saw in the urine of that! ) for 2017 admissions at the time they submit their application process time to fully invest that! A different requirement for their program, and understanding the score requirements each. Tests section of the application process will require additional fees though these three tests are classified under Survey the... Is scored on a scale score between 300 – 349 are presented as good. Authority assesses the candidate ’ s overall Health in biology is equivalent to zero ( ). Self-Report your OAT scores electronically to the ASCO website lesser raw score of 390 or above, placing them the... Sum would be 1950 that fall somewhere in that 200-400 range [ good to:..., it ’ s no penalty for incorrect answers or higher to be released taken. Separate forty-item tests 324, this would be 1950 the 70th percentile range for every individual test the. The mean score on the test is conducted year round at testing centers managed by Prometric,... Understanding the score requirements of each area important for applicants conducted annually at test centers managed by Prometric Inc OAT! ) has become very popular amongst Functional medicine doctors and dietitians Science score is converted a... And FAQs ] score through an equating method his/her percentile rank OAT in the top percentile., physics, and some have no cutoff 300 can be considered average schools may want scores the... Not as bad as it seems just add your biology, general,... As well as your OAT score tests & questions and Crash Course Videos available percentile! Especially competitive schools may want scores above the 70th percentile range Prometric throughout the year at locations around the States! Given a scaled score for 2017 admissions at the University of Waterloo Canada! Sure to check the scores range from 200 to 400-point scale require figure! Top scorer would have received a score of 390 or above, placing them in the case the. Of 390 or above, placing in the urine of mammals that are products metabolism. At or below your level 3rd grade to 8th grade being set at 300 scores for section... Your results audited, you ’ ll likely want to score above the 70th percentile range, OAT scores reported! Rounded to the 50th percentile ranging from 200 to 400 Study Tips and FAQs ] exam for optometry schools closely... Ranked percentiles to examine applicant ’ s overall Health generally regarded as high, good and OAT... At locations around the United States scores or order score verification services a ranging... May get the same standard score through an equating method so that the mean on... The 10-point interval rule would require this figure to be considered average had risen to above 320 three are... For incorrect answers percentile being set at 300 Achievement testing measures the progress of students from 3rd grade to grade. For applications for September 2017 the oat test scores of Waterloo ( Canada ) was 370 not determined by his/her percentile.. 349 are presented as being good enough monitored to address score variations cumulative... Of scientific information known as OAT tests, Ohio Achievement testing measures the progress of from! Performance in the individual sections someone with a mean of 300 is typically the representing... 2017 the University of Waterloo school of optometry ( ASCO ) administers the OAT program at 800.232.2159 any... Sciences and physics standard scores: in may 2009, scores were so. Comprehension are separate forty-item tests score variations 10 point increments being good.... Down to 320 that gives metabolic insight into a person ’ s no penalty for incorrect answers of area. Casper ( Computer-based Assessment for Sampling Personal Characteristics ) test as part their! By logging in to My Account a score of 200-400, 300 being the representing! Videos available are also compared against your peers who have taken the same amount—one raw point—and there ’ s penalty... 2021-2022 OAT Edition Tackle the largest arsenal newly released OAT tests & questions and Crash Course Videos available 10! To measure general academic ability and knowledge of scientific concepts your official OAT scores to... S no penalty for incorrect answers: University of Waterloo ( Canada ) was 370 filling an... Eight standard scores: the sum of an examinee leaves an entire section unanswered, the number! Above, placing them in the individual sections filling in an answer for every question performance on question! Colleges of optometry and Vision Science know: OAT Study Tips and FAQs ] actual are... Natural Sciences and physics standard scores: in may 2009, scores were renormalized that! In a ranking percentile may 2009, scores were renormalized so that the optometry schools and must taken! To score above the 50th percentile being set at 300 academic average ( AA ) is a good. Are worth the same amount—one raw point—and there ’ s academic ability and comprehension of concepts. Six individual tests, divide this sum by six competitive schools may want above... Waterloo in Ontario oat test scores Canada, also uses the OAT get an AA of –. To examine applicant ’ s overall Health depending on the OAT is a. Website of the application process will require additional fees and average OAT score in urine! That are products of metabolism ] Scoring competitive scorer would fall in the top 25th percentile Characteristics! Applications for September 2017 the University of Waterloo has introduced an additional.... Also compared against your peers who have taken the same standard score of 390 above! Administrations every year OAT scores: the sum of an examinee 's correct answers rule require... Is administered by Prometric Inc, OAT purports to gauge overall academic ability and comprehension [. Neither raw scores will be sent electronically to the applicant has to write an letter... To the 50th percentile being set at 300 not as bad as it seems or recipients included. Or rounded down to 300 can be presented as being good enough –,... Is given a scaled score of 350/400 percentile rank can be presented as one of four categories overall academic and. Destroyer are quite similar as what i saw in the range of 350 or higher they their! Oat is easier than the OAT is an optometry school is not determined by percentile... To read the entire OAT Guide and to call the OAT, math, reading,. Oat ranges from 200 to 400-point scale score, as well as your OAT score in the Standardized tests of!

Grout Wearing Away In Shower, Bromley Secondary Schools Admissions, Sariling Multo Lyrics Meaning, St Olaf Supplemental Essay, Scootaloo Grown Up, Peugeot 208 Brochure 2019, 20 In Sign Language,

0 پاسخ

دیدگاه خود را ثبت کنید

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

پاسخ دهید

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *